## Stochastic Electrodynamics

Max Planck opposed Einstein's photon idea from
the beginning, and remained a champion of the
unquantized Maxwell field throughout his life. For example, in
1907 in a letter to Einstein, he said
*I am not seeking the meaning of the quantum of action (light
quantum) in the vacuum but rather in places where emission and
absorption occur, and I assume that what happens in the vacuum is
rigorously described by Maxwell's equations.* It should be noted
that nowadays it is customary to refer to "light quanta" as
"photons".

In
1911 Planck introduced the hypothesis of the *zeropoint
electromagnetic field* in an effort to avoid Einstein's
ideas about discontinuity in the emission and
absorption processes. His ideas were published
in successive editions of *The Theory of Heat
Radiation*, which came out in an English
version, published by Dover, in 1959. They were
rediscovered by various people, including myself,
in the 1950s and 1960s. We tried to explain *all*
quantum effects with this zeropoint field, and called the new
discipline *Stochastic Electrodynamics* (SED)

While
achieving some notable successes, for example with
the Casimir effect, SED must overall be
judged a failure. (Of the two recent textbooks we cite
in the reference list below one agrees and the
other disagrees with this evaluation.) It is
now clear to me that the reason for this failure
is that we did not take into account the extended
structure of the electron, which is what gives it
its spin for example (see Quantum Electrodynamics
). Nevertheless, we have been
able to show that the phenomenon of Parametric
Down Conversion
is, like the Casimir effect,
explainable using only the zeropoint electromagnetic field.
Note that recently our work in
this area has enabled us to make a direct challenge to
the established Photon theory of this phenomenon,
with a fairly easy and striking new experimental
prediction. For details go to the above page.

**References**
- M. Planck,
*Theory of Heat Radiation*, Dover, New York, 1959
- T. W. Marshall,
*Random Electrodynamics*,
Proc. Roy. Soc. A, 275, 476-491 (1963)
- T. W. Marshall,
*Statistical Electrodynamics*,
Proc. Camb. Phil. Soc., 61, 537-546 (1965)
- T. W. Marshall,
*A Classical Treatment of Blackbody
Radiation*, Nuovo Cimento, 38, 216-215 (1965)
- P. W. Milonni,
*The Quantum Vacuum*, Academic,
San Diego, 1993
- L. de la Pena and A. M. Cetto,
*The Quantum Dice*,
Kluwer, Dordrecht, 1996